This material is based on a sort of odd book by Victor Wooten (See References). In this book, Wooten's eccentric teacher talks about the elements (see his list, below). I've been giving my students a sort of "laundry list" of elements that one works with, in studying music, for quite some time, so this caught my attention.
I'm fairly certain more able people than myself have already done this, and I would appreciate feedback from readers. Please email me if you would like to share your ideas, make corrections or comments. Currently, I have as the elements of music (alphabetized but in no particular order of importance):
Articulation: Shape of a note or phrase. Basically three marks (and combinations thereof). The dot ( . ) which is staccato (short); the line ( - ) which is tenuto (stretched); and the accent ( > ) which is like a little punch at the beginning of a note. (Accent marks are the chevron pointing to the right.) Sometimes in an otherwise more or less staccato passage, the articulation line ( - ) is meant to give the note full length, where it is equivalent to tenuto. Sometimes, in combination with a slur, it means the notes are detached although played without a change in bow direction. Sometimes the line implies that some sort of weight should be given to the note. Sometimes it's composer-defined.
Conventions of notation: The way that music is written on the page is important, but according to Wooten, is often the main focus of teachers, and it should not be. It is only one element, and not the most important one.
Style: Performance practice as it relates to the commonalities in style periods: Baroque, Classical, Romantic, Contemporary, Post-Modern. [Note that "musicology" is a very broad term, and includes just about everything, including subject areas such as acoustics; it's not just music history, in other words. See: Musicology, Wikipedia]
Feel [Ed. note: He probably says "feel" because the teaching in this case is bass guitar, which is specific time era related, versus the many style periods classically trained musicians study; so this might be equivalent to "Style" in my list.]