Bartók pizz: Also called snap pizz. Right hand pulls the string away from the fingerboard and releases, causing a snapping sound. Bartók pizz.
Percussive note: Graphic indication of a non-tonal sound. Spoken (or shouted) words might be written below the note(s); other percussive sounds are possible, such as tapping the instrument or the music stand with the bow, finger snapping or stomping feet. Composer defined. Not to be confused with the "x" which is used as a double sharp.
sharpen a quarter tone
sharpen three quarter tones
flatten a quarter tone
flatten three quarter tones
highest note of the instrument (no definite pitch)
play between bridge and tailpiece
arpeggio on four strings behind the bridge
play on the tailpiece (arco) by bowing the tailpiece at an angle of 90° to its longer axis
play on the bridge by bowing the wood of the bridge at a right angle at its right side
Percussion effect: strike the upper sounding board of the violin with the nut or the fingertips
several irregular changes of bow
very slow vibrato with a 1/4 tone frequency difference produced by sliding the finger
very rapid non rhythmisized tremelo
ord. - ordinario; cancel previous special instructions
s.p. - sul ponticello; play on the bridge
s.t. - sul tasto; play on the fingerboard
c.l. - col legno; play with the wood of the bow
l. batt. - legno battuto; play by striking the wood
At first glance, these last two entries (col legno and legno battuto), seem to be the same thing. In the Threnody score, however, the legno battuto is associated with "arpeggio on four strings behind the bridge"
There is another modern construction of this sort, the col legno tratto ("drawn with the wood"). This is much less common, and the plain marking col legno is invariably interpreted to mean battuto rather than tratto. The sound produced by col legno tratto is very quiet, with an overlay of white noise, but the pitch of the stopped note can be clearly heard. [Ref: Wikipedia: Col Legno.]
Other, more traditional techniques which are used in this piece are the glissandi and the subito dynamic markings.
My Notes in the Score
Composed at the turn of 1959 and won third prize at the G. Fitelberg Composers' Competition in Katowice in 1960. First public perf. took place at the Warsaw Autumn Festival of 1961 with the Cracow Phil, cond. by Andj. Markowski. 1964, Oct. 12: Pederecko wrote: "Let the Threnody ('lament') express my firm belief that the sacrifice of Hiroshima will never be forgotten and lost."
m. 6 texture change
m. 7 first overlap of texture, imitation in inversion
m. 9 misprint, 3rd bass part, 3rd note; should be, highest pitch
m. 10 change
m. 11 gesture which expands and contracts
m. 12-13 imitation in retrograde
m. 15 internal cadence before next section
m. 16 change
m. 17 ascending and descending gestures
m. 18 change
m. 20 very big change, five minute point
m. 20 Big Canon (cosmic size); Voice = Choir 1, basses imitation vls
In meter, like traditional notation (staff lines, rests)
m. 38 Choir 2 comes in (Gabrielli; St. Marks)
m. 44 Choir 3 enters, not complete canonic imitation
m. 51 Retransition
m. 56 Overlap, unpitches special effects [A]
m. 62 [A] for sure, back to graphic notation
m. 63 imitation in retrograde
m. 69 Tonic cadence
24 Violini (Vn)
10 Viole (Vl)
10 Violoncelli (Vc)
8 Contrabbassi (Cb)
Penderecki, Krzysztof: Threnody To the Victims of Hiroshima for 52 Strings. Belwin Mills Pub. Corp., Melville, NY 11746. Score | MP3
Study of Orchestration, Third Edition
Fux, John. Study of Counterpoint
Gerou, Tom and Lusk, Linda.
Essential Dictionary of Music Notation: The Most Practical and Concise Source for Music Notation
Kennan, Kent and Grantham, Donald.
The Technique of Orchestration and CD Recording Package
Twentieth-Century Harmony: Creative Aspects and Practice
Harmony: 5th ed.
Principles of Orchestration
Music Notation in the Twentieth Century: A Practical Guidebook
The Contemporary Violin: ExtENDed Performance Techniques (The New Instrumentation)
See also: Music History/Theory Guide to Studying for Placement Tests