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Music History/Theory Guide
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Last revision: Oct. 23, 2016

Handouts (web)
160 Flashcards for Strings & Piano Students
Advice to a College Student
Analysis of Carl Flesch Scale System
• J.S. Bach: Music | Recordings | Books | Links
Baroque Dance Forms
Bowing Variations
Care & Maintenance of Stringed Instruments
Chord Structures & Cadential Formulas
Clef Signs
Early History of the Violin
Elements of Music Pedagogy
Figured Bass New!
Fingerboard Charts: Violin and Viola
Intervals, Evaluating
Learning Curves
Nonharmonic Tones
Non-Traditional String Sound Resources
Piano Pedals
Public Domain Materials for Intermediate Violin & Viola
String Pedagogy Library
Terminology: Common String Articulations
Three Charts for Violin/Viola Study
Time Signatures & Conducting Patterns
Two Essays on the Development of Student Orchestras
Violin/Viola, Piano: 3 octave fingerings

FREE Orchestral Excerpts:
New York Philharmonic Section Violin Audition
Excerpts - Concertmaster (includes Sheherazade)
Orchestral Excerpts - VIOLIN: Includes "Don Juan"
Orchestral Excerpts - VIOLA: Includes "Don Juan"

Suzuki Repertoire (pdf):
Violin: Books 1-10
Viola: Books 1-9
Piano: Books 1-7
Suzuki Literature: Books by & about Dr. Suzuki
160 Flashcards for Strings & Piano Students
Advice to a College Student
Analysis of Carl Flesch Scale System
Bach: Violin, Viola, Cello, Piano
Baroque Dance Forms
Bowing Variations for Two-Octave Scales
Common String Articulation (Terms)
Circle of Fifths
Chord Structures & Cadential Formulas
Clef Signs
Early History of the Violin (1520-1650)
Elements of Music Pedagogy
Evaluating Intervals
Figured Bass New!
Fingerboard Chart: Viola
Fingerboard Chart: Violin
Glossary of Musical Terminology
Large size Manuscript paper
Learning Curves
Music Pre-Post Test
Musicology - Historial Eras
Non-Harmonic Tones
Non-Traditional String Sound Resources
Piano Pedals
Public Domain Materials for Intermediate Violin & Viola Students
Star Spangled Banner, Arr. Rachmaninoff
String Care (16 pages)
Student Handout: Instrument Care (1 page)
Student Handout: Orchestra Etiquette (2 pages)
Suzuki Violin Repertoire List
Teaching Library
Three Charts for Violin/Viola Lessons
Time Signatures & Conducting Patterns
Two Essays on the Development of Student Orchestras
Viola Fingerboard Chart
Violin Fingerboard Chart
Violin Harmonics: Paul Zukofsky
Violin/Viola, Piano: 3 octave fingerings

Analysis: 1 octave Major & Minor Scales

Get Free Acrobat Reader
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Music Dictionaries
Research Tools
Ear Training
Performance Practice
Score Reading/Conducting
Musicology Notes | Texts | Links
Composers' Dates
Theory Notes
• Outlines Grout History of Western Music

Advanced Violin Literature
Advanced Viola Literature
Advanced Chamber Literature
Advanced Piano Literature
Manuscript Paper
Orchestral Excerpts
Student Concertos (violin)
Viola Concertos
Violin Cadenzas
Violin, Viola and Piano Theory
Complete Orchestral Parts: Vl1, Vl2, Vla
Works edited by Ivan Galamian

"Easy" versions:
Violin/Piano Duets
Violin Trios
• Duets: Vl/vl, Vl/vla, Vla/vla, Vl/vc, Vla/vc, Vl/guitar
Easy Fiddle Tunes

Good luck in preparation for your auditions and placement tests. On this page you will find a collection of notes, links, and input from other students and professors regarding the materials to be examined for placement tests, both at the undergraduate and graduate levels. These tests are required (with rising levels of difficulty, naturally) in order that it may be determined whether the student needs remedial work in the subject areas.

Graduate school can be difficult, and one wonders, sometimes, if the time taken to complete the degree(s) is worth the sacrifice in practice time. Doctoral work, in particular, is very stressful; lots of the best players stop at the M.M. in performance. However, if you want to teach in a university, a doctorate is increasingly more of a requirement, I think it's safe to say. Being called "Dr." the rest of your life is not a small thing, either, for some people. It was once mentioned to me that most university courses are only "introductory" in nature, which is sobering thought, but accurate, I believe. I would also recommend Getting What You Came For: The Smart Student's Guide to Earning an M.A. or a Ph.D. by Robert Peters. It's not musical, but it's a very useful book.

Guide to Teaching and Playing the Violin

Outliers: The Story of Success

Talent is Overrated: What Really Separates World-Class Performers from Everybody Else

Mastery of Music

Mozart in the Jungle

Mastering the Art of Performance: A Primer for Musicians

Psychology for Musicians: Understanding and Acquiring the Skills

The End of Early Music: A Period Performer's History of Music for the 21st Century

Inside Early Music: Conversations with Performers


This is Your Brain on Music: The Science of Human Obsession

The Music Lesson

On Conducting

Virgil Thomson: A Reader: Selected Writings, 1924-1984

The Private Music Instruction Manual

Kindling the Spark: Recognizing and Developing Musical Talent

Moving to Higher Ground: How Jazz Can Change Your Life

The Rest Is Noise

Playing the Violin: An Illustrated Guide

The Violin: A Research and Information Guide

Bartok's Viola Concerto: The Remarkable Story of His Swansong

The Cambridge Companion to the String Quartet

Piano Notes

Beyond Talent: Creating a Successful Career in Music

The Bow, Its History, Manufacture and Use 'The Strad' Library, No. III FREE

Violin Making 'The Strad' Library, No. IX FREE

The Repairing & Restoration of Violins 'The Strad' Library, No. XII FREE

Violin Mastery - Talks With Master Violinists and Teachers!

Violin Repair Guide

Violin Owner's Manual

Beethoven: Violin Concerto, Robin Stowell

Catalog of Rare Old Violins, Violas, Violoncellos, Bows of Rare Makes $0.99

The Violin: Its Famous Makers and Their Imitators, George Hart

Violin Mastery: Talks With Master Violinists and Teachers, C Kellogg

Violin Mastery, Stan Morse


Good beginning books for self-study:
Essentials of Music Theory: Complete Self-Study Course
Alfred's Essentials of Jazz Theory

Grout 9th ed. A History of Western Music, (Ninth Edition) J. Peter Burkholder, Donald Jay Grout, Claude V. Palisca. W. W. Norton & Co., Inc. New York. 2014.

Publication Date: April 15, 2014 | ISBN-10: 0393918297 | ISBN-13: 978-0393918298 | Edition: Ninth Edition

The definitive history of Western music, now with Total Access. Combining current scholarship with cutting-edge pedagogy, the Ninth Edition of A History of Western Music is the text that students and professors have trusted for generations. Because listening is central to music history, the new Total Access program provides a full suite of media resources—including an ebook and premium streaming recordings of the entire Norton Anthology of Western Music repertoire—with every new text. Combining thoughtful revisions—particularly to chapters on the twentieth and twenty-first centuries—with exceptional media resources, A History of Western Music provides all the resources that students need in a text that will last a lifetime.

Dallin, Leon: Techniques Of Twentieth-Century Composition
Berlioz, Hector and Richard Strauss. Treatise on Instrumentation
Berry, Wallace. Form in Music, Second Edition

Burney, Charles: The following works are out of print though accessible via established music libraries or interlibrary loan (with fees attached, in some cases). But to get titles and ISPN numbers, offers the following:

Music, men, and manners in France and Italy, 1770 : being the journal written by Charles Burney during a tour through those countries undertaken to collect material for a general history of music
Memoirs of Dr Charles Burney, 1726-1769
The Letters of Dr. Charles Burney: 1751-1784
Dr. Charles Burney's Continental Travels, 1770-1772
An eighteenth-century musical tour in Central Europe and the Netherlands: being Dr. Charles Burney's account of his musical experiences
An eighteenth-century musical tour in Central Europe and the Netherlands : being Dr. Charles Burney's account of his musical experiences
Memoirs of the Life and Writings of the Abate Metastasio, Including Translations of His Principal Letters.: Including Translations of His Principal Letters (Da Capo Press Music Reprint Series)
A General History of Music, from the Earliest Ages to the Present Period (1789)
The great Dr. Burney; his life, his travels, his works, his family, and his friends by Percy Alfred Scholes
Dr. Burney As Critic and Historian of Music by Kerry S. Grant
The only book I could locate about Burney which is not out of print: Dr. Charles Burney: A Literary Biography by Roger H. Lonsdale

Donington, Robert. Baroque Music, Style and Performance: A Handbook

Fux, Joseph. Study of Counterpoint

Jeppesen, Knud. Counterpoint: The Polyphonic Vocal Style of the Sixteenth Century

Kennedy, Michael. The Oxford Dictionary of Music

Machlis, Joseph. Introduction to Contemporary Music

Neumann, Frederick. Ornamentation in Baroque and Post-Baroque Music: With Special Emphasis on J. S. Bach

Perle, George. Serial Composition and Atonality: An Introduction to the Music of Schoenberg, Berg, and Webern

Pincherle, Marc. Vivaldi: Genius of the Baroque

Piston, Walter. Harmony

Plantinga, Leon. Romantic Music: A History of Musical Style in Nineteenth-Century Europe (Norton Introduction to Music History)

Rameau, Jean Philippe. Treatise on Harmony

Randel, Don Michael. The New Harvard Dictionary of Music

Rosen, Charles. Sonata Forms

Rosen, Charles. The Classical Style: Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven

Slonimsky, Nicolas. Baker's Biographical Dictionary of Musicians

Turek, Ralph. The Elements of Music

Ear Training Texts:

Stefan Kostka:

Tonal Harmony, With an Introduction to Twentieth-Century Music
Student Workbook and CD for use with Tonal Harmony
Audio CDs for use with Tonal Harmony

Ralph Turek:

The Elements of Music, Vol. 1
Workbook for the Elements of Music, Vol. 1
The Elements of Music, Vol. 2
Workbook for the Elements of Music, Vol. 2, not listed: email vendor to make sure you're getting the correct book.
Elements Music Vol 1&2 2e Cd

Notation Texts:

•Adler, Samuel. Study of Orchestration, Third Edition

•Fux, John. Study of Counterpoint

•Gerou, Tom and Lusk, Linda. Essential Dictionary of Music Notation: The Most Practical and Concise Source for Music Notation

•Kennan, Kent and Grantham, Donald. The Technique of Orchestration and CD Recording Package

•Read, Gardner. Music Notation

•Persichetti,Vincent. Twentieth-Century Harmony: Creative Aspects and Practice

•Piston, Walter. Orchestration

•Piston, Walter. Counterpoint

•Piston, Walter. Harmony: 5th ed.

•Rimsky-Korsakov, Nikolay. Principles of Orchestration

•Stone, Kurt. Music Notation in the Twentieth Century: A Practical Guidebook

•Strange, Allen. The Contemporary Violin: ExtENDed Performance Techniques (The New Instrumentation)

Performance Practice:

Judy Tarling's Baroque String Playing for Ingenious Learners, available in the US through Boulder Early Music Shop

• Apel, Willi: Italian Violin Music of the Seventeenth Century

• Boyden, David: The History of Violin Playing from Its Origins to 1761 and Its Relationship to the Violin and Violin Music

• Carter, Stewart: A Performer's Guide to Seventeenth-Century Music

• Donington, Robert: Baroque Music: Style and Performance

• Donington, Robert: The Interpretation of Early Music

• Donington, Robert: String Playing in Baroque Music

• Haskell, Thomas: The Early Music Revival: A History

• Haynes, Bruce: The End of Early Music: A Period Performer's History of Music for the Twenty-First Century

• Neumann, Frederick: Ornamentation in Baroque and Post-Baroque Music: With Special Emphasis on J. S. Bach

• Stowell, Robin: Performing Beethoven

• Stowell, Robin: Violin Technique and Performance Practice in the Late Eighteenth and Early Nineteenth Centuries

• Vial, Stephanie D.: The Art of Musical Phrasing in the Eighteenth Century: Punctuating the Classical "Period"

Score Reading/Conducting:

Samuel Adler. Study of Orchestration, Third Edition

Hector Berlioz. Treatise on Instrumentation

Dave Black. Essential Dictionary of Orchestration

George Burt. The Art of Film Music

Deryck Cooke. The Language of Music

David Daniels. Orchestral Music

Robert W. Demaree. The Complete Conductor

Harold Farberman, Thom Proctor. The Art of Conducting Technique: A New Perspective

Cecil Forsyth. Orchestration

Norman Del Mar.
Anatomy of the Orchestra

Conducting Beethoven: Overtures, Concertos, Missas Solemnis

Conducting Beethoven: The Symphonies

Conducting Berlioz

Conducting Brahms

Conducting Elgar

Michael Dickreiter, Reinhard G. Pauly. Score Reading: A Key to the Music Experience

Knud Jeppesen. Counterpoint: The Polyphonic Vocal Styles of the Sixteenth Century

Norman Lebrecht. The Maestro Myth: Great Conductors in Pursuit of Power

Alfred Mann. The Study of Fugue

Brock McElheran. Conducting Technique for Beginners and Professionals

Reginald O. Morris, Howard Ferguson. Preparatory Exercises in Score Reading

Walter Piston. Orchestration

Jean Rameau. Treatise on Harmony

Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov. Principles of Orchestration

Jeff Rona. The Reel World: Scoring for Pictures

Max Rudolf. The Grammar of Conducting: A Comprehensive Guide to Baton Technique and Interpretation

Felix Salzer. Structural Hearing Tonal Coherence in Music (Two Volumes Bound As One) [Schenkerian analysis: read Piston and Fux first.]

Hermann Scherchen. Handbook of Conducting

Arnold Schoenberg. Structural Functions of Harmony

Gunther Schuller. The Compleat Conductor

Ernst Toch. The Shaping Forces in Music: An Inquiry into the Nature of Harmony, Melody, Counterpoint, Form (The Dover Series of Study Editions, Chamber Music, Orchestral Works, Operas in Full Score)


Note that human life does not lend itself well to restricted categories
and both the dates and the styles are subject to change and debate among scholars.
Historical Era
Approximate dates
Representative Composers
(Small sample)
Medieval ca. 500-1450 Hildegard von Bingen, Machaut, Landini, Léonin, Pérotin.
See: Wikipedia List
Renaissance 1450-1600 Josquin, Dufay, Palestrina.
See: Wikipedia List
Also see: 1725-1770 Roccoco (and/or Galant)
1600-1750 Bach, Vivaldi, Tartini, Geminiani, Handel.
See: Wikipedia List
Classical 1750-1820 Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven.**
See: Wikipedia List
Also see: Nationalism - Grieg, Sibelius
1820-1910 Schubert, Schumann, Chopin, Paganini, Brahms.
See: Wikipedia List
Contemporary, also referred to as 20th Century or Modern. Includes subcategories such as:

• Impressionism: Debussy, Ravel

• Expressionism: Schoenberg, Berg, Webern

• Americana: Copland

• Neo Classicism: Stravinsky, Copland

• Neo Romanticism: Piston, Barber, Hanson

• Experimentalism: Brown, Cage

• Minimalism: Glass, Reich

Also see: Further Discussion: Contemporary Musicology

1910-present Bartók, Bernstein, Cage, Babbit, Gershwin, Varese, Messiean, Stockhausen, Takemitsu.
See: Wikipedia List

** From A History of Western Music: "Through external circumstances and the force of his own genius he transformed this heritage and became the source of much that was characteristic of the Romantic period. But he himself is neither Classic nor Romantic; he is Beethoven, and his figure towers like a colossus astride the two centuries." [Donald Jay Grout. (3rd Edition with Claude V. Palisca.) W. W. Norton & Co., Inc. New York. 1973. p. 521. Newest ed. of the Grout, 9th ed., Burkholder

Musicology Texts:
Studying Music History, 2nd ed., David Poultney

A History of Western Music, (Ninth Edition) J. Peter Burkholder, Donald Jay Grout, Claude V. Palisca. W. W. Norton & Co., Inc. New York. 2014. (Includes embook and digital recordings)

Study and Listening Guide for Concise History of Western Music and Norton Anthology of Western Music, J. Peter Burkholder.


Josquin circa 1450-1521
Vivaldi 1678-1741
J.S. Bach:
• Arnstadt 1703-1707
• Mühlhausen 1707-1708
• Weimer 1708-1717
• Cöthen 1717-1723
• St. Thomas' School, Leipzig 1723-1750
Handel 1685-1759
Haydn 1732-1809 (d. 77)
Mozart 1756-1791 (d. 35)
Beethoven 1770-1827 (d. 57)
Bartók 1881-1945 (d. 64)


Ear Training MP3's, please see: Sound Files. Includes: Scales, Modes, Chords, Consonance/Dissonance, Meter, Articulations and Timbre.

The "circle of fifths" is really a spiral of fifths, never really meeting itself, since pairs such as F#/Gb are absolutely not the same note as one another. They're a comma apart (almost 1/4 of a semitone) in pitch.

I Tonic
ii Supertonic
iii Mediant
IV Subdominant
V Dominant
vi Submediant or superdominant
viiº Leading Tone

Triads: 6 6/4
7th chords: 7 6/5 4/3 4/2

V-I, V-i Authentic
IV-I, iv-i Plagel
x-V, Half
V-(VI), V-(vi) Deceptive
iv(6) - V Phrygian: in minor, modal. Mixolydian: rock and roll. C: I-VII-I

Modes: (Modal degrees are 3 and 6. Church: 5 whole steps and 2 1/2 steps. "Dr. Phil and Molly")
Ionian 3-4, 7-8
Dorian 2-3, 6-7
Phrygian 1-2, 5-6
Lydian 4-5, 7-8
Mixolydian 3-4, 6-7
Aeolian 2-3, 5-6
Locrian 1-2, 4-5

D Dorian
E Phrygian
F Lydian
G Mixolydian
A Aeolian
C Ionian

Augmented 6th Chords: Contain interval of dd3th or Aug6, most often found inverted. Origin of names unknown. When reduced to root position, they can be seen to function as altered subdominant or supertonie chords. May be spelled enharmonically and used for modulation. [See:
Augmented 6th Chords, UT Austin and Chord types, Indiana University.]

Italian -
German -
French -
Neapolitan -
Major triad on flat sueprtonic,
1st inversion.

Non-chordal tones:

• P.T. - passing tones: fill 3rds or 4ths, or 2nds (chrom)
• N.T. - neighboring tones: (auxiliary or embellishing tones) one step or half-step above or below, accented or unaccented
• Anticipation
• Suspension
• Decorated resolution of suspension
• Changing note (nota cambiata: up a 3rd, down stepwise
• Double neighboring tone: of four notes, 1st and last are the same
• Unprepared NT: by leap
• Retardation: suspensions that resolve upward
• E.T. - escape tone (echappee): rhythmically weak dissonance approached by step and resolved by leap
• Pedal

Dominant 9th: Major triad, m 7th, M or m 9th. 7 and 9 resolve down by step. 5th omitted. Modulation: diatonic, chromatic, enharmonic. Transient key cells.

N6: 6 refers to inversion.
A6: 6 refers to interval.

7th chords:
Dom: M3 P5 m7
M: M3 P5 M7
m: m3 P5 m7
small: m3 P5 M7
dd (freely): m3 d5 d7
large: M3 A5 M7
A6: m3 d5 m7

Harmonic series: 8, 5, 4, 3, m3, 2, 2, 2, 2, 1/2, 1/2, 1/2, 1/2

Blue note: flat 3rd or 7th

C c g c' (middle C) e' g' b6' c" d" e" f" g"

middle C=261.63

M: 3-4, 7-8
natural m: 2-3, 5-6
harmonic m: 2-3, 5-6, 6-7 (step and 1/2), 7-8
melodic m:
•ascending form: 2-3, 7-8:
•descending form: 6-5, 3-2 (like natural m.)

Newer remarks (Bradley Lehman):

• Lindley's article "Temperaments" in New Grove is indeed an excellent place to start, and indispensable reading. So is his "well-tempered clavier" article there, but be aware that there are two important numerical errors there in the charts he gives for Neidhardt's systems for organs. I have the corrections noted here, for those printed errors in New Grove:

• Additional theory/history resources about tuning are in the "Further resources" section of my newest paper, "Bach's art of temperament": That also has more detail about the different tuning strategies, beyond your short and incomplete list of "Tuning: Pythagorean, just, meantone, equal tempered."

• A rather large collection of comparative temperaments is part of my article "Bach's extraordinary temperament: our Rosetta Stone" (free download). That article also has a lot to say about the "1/6 comma meantone, an 18th century standard" system as someone else has remarked.

• You might want to say more about "Hertz: c.p.s." to clarify it. Something like: "A measurement of the vibrations per second, or cycles per second (CPS), in pitch. Developed in the 19th century."

• Also enlarge "Overtone: pitches generated above fundamental" as that's too vague. The point there is that it's not just any old pitches above the fundamental, willy-nilly, but exact multiples. The frequency is 2x, 3x, 4x, 5x, etc the fundamental vibration rate, and forms the harmonic series.

In your "Tuning" list at the bottom, the most important category is *not* listed: "irregular" temperaments. Read, especially, Lindley's article "Temperaments" in New Grove.

In your little "Cents" table, 698 is not an equal-tempered fifth; 700 is. 698 is 1/6 comma meantone, an 18th century standard; see especially Bruce Haynes' article in 1991 Early Music about that.

Similarly, your other measurements of 400 and 300 (and that other table of frequencies, 261.63 etc) make sense only in context of equal temperament, which really has little to do with the 18th century situation. (They knew about equal temperament but discarded it, both because it sounds bad and because it's difficult to set accurately.) Pure major thirds are much lower than 400 cents (i.e. about 386). 1/6 comma major thirds are about 393.

In your overtone series [C c g c' (middle C) e' g' b6' c" d" e" f" g"] laid out just above that: the penultimate note should be closer to f# than f.

Above that, throw away the layout of "8, 5, 4, 3, m3, 2, 2, 2, 2, 1/2, 1/2, 1/2, 1/2" and instead go look at an orchestration book about the natural notes available on horns and trumpets...that will give you a much clearer sense of the way the intervals are laid out, instead of counting any number of steps or half-steps.

I think that it is interesting that no treatises or *critical* histories of music are included on the list. I would have totally revised the link and included such things as Rameau's Treatise on Harmony, the works of Walther, Werckmeister, Praetorius, Mattheson, and other theoriticians, and such performance works as Karl Philipp Emanuel Bach's Versuch ueber das wahre Art des Klavier zu spielen, the Berlioz/Strauss Treatise on Instrumentation, Leopold Mozart's Treatise on Violin Playing, etc. Instead of the Grout (9th ed., includes ebook and digital recordings), I would use Paul Henry Lang's Music in Western Civilization. I also would have used such works as Friedrich Blume's Protestant Church Music, biographical and autobiographical works, etc. Grout is good as a very basic intro, but is too general and often inaccurate. [ED NOTE: Please see Violinists' Library for more books on string pedagogy.]

Theme and Variations
Bar Form: AAB

sonata allegro form diagram

Sonata Allegro Form: not a form but a procedure of key conflict and configuration. Key and chord are different concepts. Actually only applies to a small number of works. See Charles Rosen, Sonata Forms.
Exposition: Theme I in Tonic, Theme II in Dominant. Relatable keys;
Development: Development of themes (may bring in new themes). Tonal fluctuation;
Recapitulation: Themes I and II, both in Tonic

Phrase group: phrase, phrase, phrase.
Period: phrase HC, phrase FC.
Single phrase period: phrase.
Simple binary: A cadence B (no return to A)
Ternary: A B A (or C)
Rounded binary: A B,A

1/2 step = 100 cents
1 step = 200 cents
1 octave = 1200 cents
P5 = 700 cents, 698 equal temperament
M3 = 400 cents
m3 = 300 cents
342 (171 x 2) = Blue Note

c. 1600-1875: any chord altered to become M or Mm7 will automatically assume dominant function. In a M7th, the m refers to the 7th, not the top 3rd.

Tonic Harmony: I i vi6 iii
Dominant Harmony: V V7 viiº viiº7
Subdominant Harmony: IV ii (ii 6/5) iv iiº vi N6 A6


Schenker (1869-1935): German theorist. "Chord of nature": Overtone series, 5th partial, tonal center of a work. Klang. Bachground: Ursatz: from foreground, middleground, eliminating details. Chord grammar, prolongation, chord significance. Seeing large scale connections. [See: A Guide to Schenker Analysis.]

Anhemitonic: pentatonic scale with no half-steps.
Appogiatura: "to lean": non-harmonic tones; Appoggiaturas are not necessarily approached by leap. And they're sub-components of lots of other types of ornaments.
Compound interval: P/P, M/m, m/M, dd/A, A/dd.
Clef Signs: Treble, bass, tenor, alto, soprano, baritone, mezzo soph.
Gregorian notation: Liber Usualis
Harpsichord: plucked. Clavichord: struck.
Hertz: c.p.s.
Homophonic: one melodic line with accompaniment.
Isorhythm: Mensual Music: Basis of modern system. 13th-16th Century, contrast to plainsong. Polyphonic, each note has a determined value. Notation established 1250.
Metric Modulation: Eliot Carter
Monophonic: one melodic line without accompaniment.
Neoclassicism: the use of classical forms without the tonal structures on which they are based.
Overtone: pitches generated above fundamental.
Partial: all pitches of the harmonic series.
Polyphonic (contrapuntal): two or more melodic lines.
Real answer: exact intervallic transportion.
Sonatina: sonata without development section.
Tendency tones: fa--mi, ti--do.
Tonal answer: certain intervals adjusted to accommodate tonality.
Tuning: Pythagorean, just, meantone, equal tempered.

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